Trends and threatening factors

A significant decline in population numbers is experienced from the last decades of the 20th century.

The possible reasons of the decline are:

  • Loss of nesting sites (the drastic decline in the rook population, the loss of steppe wood patches due to illegal lodging)
  • Loss of breeding habitat (intensifying agriculture, the decline of authentic land management practices /e.g. grazing/)
  • Electrocution, road-kills
  • Predators at breeding colonies
  • Mortality during migration, negative impacts on the wintering grounds.